Finding space for EV charging infrastructure in Ireland’s dense and compact cities, towns, and villages can be a challenge. Street parking is limited and many residents don’t have access to car parks outfitted with direct current (DC) electric vehicle (EV) fast chargers. EasyGo, has teamed up with Ireland’s leading telecommunications company, eir, to find a solution. eir is working with EasyGo to convert hundreds of former telephone booth locations to DC fast charging locations. EasyGo chose Tritium’s 50-75kW all-in-one, modular DC fast chargers to get the job done and serve the needs of drivers. 

About EasyGo 

EasyGo is the largest private car charging network operating in Ireland. It hosts and operates more than 3,000 chargers throughout the country and has more than 35,000 subscribers. The company was founded in 2018 and is headquartered in Maynooth, Kildare. EasyGo’s mission is to provide EV drivers with the network they need to make sustainable transport a reality. EasyGo has approximately 30 employees and offices in Belfast and Cork. EasyGo are supported by Rubicon, one of the world’s leading investment banking firms focused solely on the infrastructure, energy, and utilities sectors. 


According to the Society of the Irish Motor Industry (SIMI), about 1 out of every 7 cars sold in Ireland in 2022 were fully electric. Ireland needs a network of fast chargers to keep up with growing demand. Additionally, transport accounts for one-third of Ireland’s energy-related CO2 emissions so increasing adoption of EVs is a key aspect in Ireland’s Climate Action Plan.  

Ireland’s eir phone booth locations are great for building that network, but they were never meant to have a large footprint. When EasyGo was tasked with converting the spaces into EV charging sites, they needed an all-in-one charger with a compact footprint that could be easily installed in the same space as a typical phone booth. The chargers would also need to provide reliable, fast charging capable of recharging an EV in a matter of minutes to maximize charger usage. 


EasyGo chose Tritium’s RTM compact and modular 50-75kW DC fast chargers. Two RTM chargers can easily fit in the space formerly occupied by a single phone booth. The charger is sealed against the elements (IP65 rated), is liquid cooled, and is modular which means it can be easily upgraded, maintained, and serviced. “The RTM is the perfect solution for tight spaces like the former eir phone booth plots,” said Chris Kelly, Founder and Technical Director of EasyGo. “And its modular design lets us configure it based on site power availability—some sites can handle 75kW chargers, others 50kW. The RTM gives us the flexibility to spec the right charger for the location.” 

EasyGo ordered more than 200 Tritium RTM chargers to install at sites around Ireland. The chargers will be configured to deliver 50kW or 75kW based on site power availability. 


Photo Credit: EasyGo

EasyGo and eir launched their new program in May 2022 and installed Tritium chargers at 70 locations in the counties of Offaly, Mayo, Cavan, Waterford, Kilkenny, and Tipperary. EasyGo are actively engaged with other local authorities to identify 120 additional locations across Ireland to install new Tritium DC fast chargers, and this program will be delivered at zero cost to county councils. 

“Electric vehicles are a critical part of the Government’s Climate Action Plan which sets out a target of almost one million electric vehicles on the road by 2030,” said eir CEO Oliver Loomes. “We are proud to partner with EasyGo and each of these county councils to assist in the installation of EV charging points across the country. This new infrastructure will benefit the community the way the public payphone service once did. Today, EasyGo and eir are in discussion with county councils across the country, and we hope others will follow this lead. By replacing unused infrastructure with fast EV charging, we are helping to make the transition to electric vehicle ownership a viable alternative for people across Ireland.” 


Tritium Charger Used

Tritium’s stand-alone RTM75 50kW-75kW DC fast charger is perfect for retail environments or anywhere a compact, all-in-one charger is required. 


According to a BNEF report, humanity will need approximately 290 million more electric vehicle (EV) charging points by 2040 to keep up with the growing global EV fleet. Many of those charge points will generate revenue for owners and improve business where they’re installed—EV drivers often shop and snack while their cars charge up.

Whether you’re in real estate, hospitality, retail, or food service, you’re probably thinking about EV chargers. Installing and maintaining them, however, can be expensive and complicated. Thankfully, there are ways to reduce total cost of ownership (TCO) for high-speed EV charging points.

This article outlines the fundamentals of deploying an EV charge point and ways you can save money throughout the process. It covers:

  1. Selecting and designing a site
  2. Selecting a charger architecture
  3. Finding incentives and rebates
  4. Optimizing ongoing maintenance and operations

Later we’ll dive deeper into ways to build and deploy charging systems, exploring technical details, regulatory issues, and cost-saving strategies.

Selecting and designing a site

You might be tempted to rush into installing a charger in your business’ parking lot or your apartment building’s parking garage, but there are many things to think about before you break ground.

The Tritium team can help you research your site before you make a purchase. We have experts around the world who know local regulations, have relationships with utility companies, and can even help estimate traffic in and around your charge site. Contact us to schedule a consultation.


Product selection

After site planning, you’ll need to choose your charging hardware. You may be tempted to purchase the most affordable charger, but entry level chargers can end up costing you more over time. That cheap charger may not be able to handle tomorrow’s EVs or present more issues, and you’ll be upgrading before you know it.

When shopping for chargers, look for modularity, scalability, and upgradability. Even if you’re starting small, choose a charger or chargers that can grow to meet future demand. Tritium’s RTM and PKM lines of chargers can be upgraded over time to deliver more power to more EVs, which means you can start small and develop your charging site over time.

Tritium PKM chargers can also share charging infrastructure. DC fast chargers need high-power electronics to turn the alternating current (AC) from the power grid into direct current (DC). This equipment is housed in a power cabinet, and most DC fast chargers need dedicated power cabinets to run. A PKM charger can share a single power cabinet with up to three other PKM chargers, reducing the overall cost of the charging system and making it easier to expand your charge point when you need to.

Chargers should also be able to weather the elements. Look for chargers that are sealed and rated for rain, wind, and dust. All Tritium charging stations are IP65 rated, meaning they meet strict standards for water and dust resistance.

Additionally, electric vehicles use a variety of connectors. Pioneering EVs like the Nissan Leaf used CHAdeMo (“CHArge de MOve” which Japanese EV organizations translate as “charge for moving”). Now most EVs use Combined Charging Standard (CCS1 or CCS2) connectors. Europe has standardized CCS2 charge connectors, while the US uses CCS1.

Also look for modern features like Plug and Charge integration, a communication protocol that lets drivers simply plug their EVs in for a charge without having to enter billing information—billing info is stored in the car itself. Standard payment processing should also be available for vehicles without Plug and Charge capabilities.

There’s a lot to learn about DC charger technology before you make a purchase. Working with an expert can make the process much easier and safer.


Incentives and rebates

There are many government, energy company, and non-profit incentives for EV charging infrastructure, ranging from tax credits to rebates to grants. These programs were created to speed up the transition from internal combustion cars to EVs and to help EV owners who might not have access to a charger at home.  

And there are many programs and incentives like this across the globe.

These are just a few of the countries and groups that are helping to meet government targets to phase out internal combustion cars and build out EV charging infrastructure. The best way to find incentives in your area is to talk to an expert. At Tritium we can help you find EV charger incentives for your region.


Ongoing maintenance and operations

Most people think of EV chargers as appliances—you plug them in and they just work. But DC fast chargers handle a tremendous amount of power and generate a lot of heat. Over many charges, components can be at risk of failure and will need to be replaced. Chargers will need regular scheduled maintenance just like any other machine. Keep this in mind when choosing your equipment. Is it easy to repair? Can repairs be done in the field? Maintenance costs can add up over time and it pays to choose a charger that is designed to be easily maintained.

Fast chargers also run complicated software that interfaces with multiple networks, including utilities networks, payment processing networks, and charging point operator networks. That software requires updates and maintenance just like your PC. What kind of software support does the manufacturer offer? Think long term. Tritium software not only handles car charging, but also works with payment processing and utilities networks. We have dedicated software engineers who work to keep up with the latest developments in EVs, battery tech, and networks.

There is a wide range of positive economic and environmental aspects of the expected growth in the deployment of EV charging infrastructure worldwide. As the world shifts towards electrification, there are many options and programs available to assist operators with cost-effective deployments of DC fast-charging solutions. Choosing a qualified partner can be the best way to ensure you get the ultimate return on your investment.

Electric vehicles (EVs) don’t all charge at the same rate. Some charge faster than others, and all of them charge at different rates over time. Even the fastest-charging passenger vehicles like the Audi e-tron GT do not draw their rated 270kW the entire time they’re plugged in to a DC fast charger. (Note: Large commercial vehicles like delivery trucks and buses can draw full power for most of the charging cycle.) That means you don’t need to deliver maximum power to every charger on your site at the same time. The chargers on your site can be networked and use load balancing to ensure EVs get the power they need when they need it—and you won’t have to outfit your charging site with gigawatts of power.

What are charging curves?

Charging a lithium-ion battery takes finesse—charge them too quickly or too much and they could overheat and become damaged. To prevent this, EVs use software to control the power delivery to the battery. Initially they can accept high levels of power, but as the battery charges up, charging levels drop to maintain battery health. Load balancing takes advantage of this difference in charging rates over time to deliver the right amount of power to EVs when it’s needed.


How can load balancing help you save?

Load balancing lets you build a charging site now that meets the needs of EV drivers and your budget. You can build a site with multiple high-output DC fast chargers without the need to supply it with enough power to run all chargers at maximum power at the same time. This is crucial: You’ll save on utility-side infrastructure costs and you can upgrade site power when needed. This also expands the number of potential sites for your charging stations. Some sites may not have enough utility power now but will in the future. Load balancing lets you build a site now with a full complement of DC fast chargers and add more power capacity over time to meet future EV demands.

How do Tritium chargers manage load balancing?

Tritium PKM150 chargers leverage the diversity of electric vehicle charging speeds via an innovative DC microgrid architecture and a proprietary algorithm to send the right amount of power to each charging station as required. The algorithm monitors various parameters, including available grid power, each vehicle’s requested power, and any active OCPP smart charging profiles, and dynamically shares power between all connected charging stations. Thanks to this load-balancing software and system design, four PKM150 chargers can share power from a single rectifier unit without the need for external load management solutions. This saves infrastructure and installation costs at the site.


Electric trucks and vans are quiet, reliable, and clean. They make our cities quieter, cleaner, and healthier. That’s why US federal, state, and even city governments have created multiple incentive programs for businesses to make the switch. Many states offer tax credits for electric delivery vehicles, and the $1.2 trillion Bipartisan Infrastructure Law includes $5 billion to help states build extensive EV charging infrastructure. Whether you’re a business or state or local government agency, now is the perfect time to take advantage of incentives to build your electric fleet—and you can rest assured that the public charging infrastructure will be there to support it.

What do you need to consider when electrifying a fleet?

Before you electrify your fleet, you’ll need a plan to determine what kind of charging infrastructure you need.

First, start with site design. Every business will have different vehicles, site configurations, drivers, and needs. Ask the following questions:

These questions and others will form a brief to help you truly understand what your goals are.
Once you’ve determined your site design, look at charging hardware. With a good understanding of how you’ll use your vehicles, you should have an idea of the types of charging speed you’ll need. If your vehicles will be charging up for several hours, you won’t need ultrafast DC chargers. If they need to make frequent trips, like rideshare services, ultrafast charging may be necessary.

Lastly, look at ways to reduce capital expenditure. There are many funding programs through governments, utilities, air pollution control districts, and more to help you save on fleet electrification. Also focus on total cost of ownership. Consider site construction costs, maintenance, upkeep, etc.

What types of incentives are out there?

We’ll review several types of incentives in this article:

What is an electric vehicle tax credit?

An EV tax credit is an incentive to encourage businesses and organizations to purchase or lease electric vehicles. Fleet owners typically lease their vehicles but can still take advantage of tax breaks.

Where can I find commercial electric vehicle incentives?

Fleet EV incentives are available through:

The Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) is a bill that provides nearly $370 billion for climate change initiatives to help reduce carbon emissions by roughly 40 percent by 2030. It provides significant tax breaks for businesses who purchase new medium and heavy-duty electric vehicles and new chargers.

The Clean Commercial Vehicle Credit lets business claim up to 30% of the purchase price (up to $40,000) of a new medium or heavy-duty commercial EV that weighs more than 14,000 pounds, which is vehicles that fall into classes 4 and above.

Where can I find incentives for EV charging stations?

There are hundreds of incentives available for fleet owners in the US. Every state has multiple programs to help transition fleets to electric power, and some power companies also offer help. At first glance it can be confusing, but there are many resources to help you sort it out. If you need more help finding incentives in your area, reach out to one of our experts.


Alternative Fuels Data Center

The Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) has made finding state laws and incentives for EVs and alternative-fuel vehicles simple. Just visit the site and click on your state to see a list of available incentives. The site is kept up to date and has all the latest news about rebates, tax breaks, and grants.

California is leading the charge with 168 programs, Washington comes in second with 67, and New York third with 56 (at the time of publication). But all states in the nation are offering something to help transition to electric commercial vehicles. Alabama is offering grants for charging stations and medium/heavy duty electric vehicles. Illinois is offering grants to cover up to 80% of the cost for the installing and maintaining direct current (DC) fast chargers, like Tritium’s PKM150. Colorado is offering similar grants that fund 80% of the cost of many EV charging stations, including up to $50,000 for a 100kW or higher charger.

Those are just a few of the grants and programs available for businesses looking to electrify their fleets. Dive into the AFDC site to find programs for your area and contact one of our experts if you have questions about DC fast chargers or charging infrastructure.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SmartWay Heavy-Duty Truck Electrification Resources

The EPA has compiled an exhaustive list of resources for US businesses or organizations looking to electrify their fleets. The organization has included links to incentive programs along with total cost of ownership (TCO) calculators so you can determine how much you’ll save by going electric. Here are some highlights.

The EPAs site has a wealth of information about transitioning your fleet to EVs.

Inflation Reduction Act Alternative Fueling Credit

The Alternative Fueling Credit is a general business tax credit for any company or organization that installs DC fast charging stations. It will offset up to 30% of the total costs of purchase and installation of charging equipment, up to $100,000 per charger. The credit cannot be used to offset expenses related to permitting and inspection. The tax credit can be used anywhere in the US and can be applied after receiving other EV grants or rebates but can only to the charger costs not covered by those grants or rebates. Resellers may claim this credit even if they’re selling charging equipment to a tax-exempt organization (nonprofit), government organization, or foreign entity (state or local government/tribes), but they must disclose in writing the amount of the credit. Tritium chargers, including the RTM and PKM150, qualify for the Alternative Fueling Credit.

Are there any other incentives for electrifying fleets?

Some US power companies offer incentives for businesses electrifying their fleets. California’s Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) offers a $9,000 rebate for transit buses and trucks that weigh over 33,000 pounds. They also offer $4,000 rebates for local delivery trucks. The company also offers up to a $42,000 rebate for 150kW and above chargers. The company will also help with site design and permitting, construction and activation, and maintenance and upgrades. There are some requirements, including:

View PG&E’s EV Fleet Program page for more information.

Many other electric companies offer services to help you transition your fleet to electric. Check with your local power company to see what programs are available.

How do I find the right the right EV incentives for my business?

Finding the right incentives to transition your fleet to electric can be a complicated process. And if you don’t find all the available incentives in your area, you’ll miss out on significant savings. To make sure you take advantage of all the incentives and programs you can, contact one of our experts. We can help you find those incentives, plan your charging site, and choose the proper chargers for your needs.


In 2022 Tritium passed major milestones on the road to electrifying transportation. We joined the NASDAQ in January, met with President Joe Biden, Secretary of Transportation Pete Buttigieg, Secretary of Energy Jennifer Granholm, and more at the White House, signed multiple partnership agreements with major energy suppliers and charge point operators, expanded our executive team, and opened our new manufacturing facility in Tennessee. We hired more than 350 new employees and shipped thousands of chargers around the world and received approximately $200 million in sales orders. We look forward to making 2023 an even bigger year for Tritium and electric vehicle (EV) fast charging.

Ringing the Closing Bell at the NASDAQ

After more than 20 years as a private company, Tritium went public on January 27, 2022.

“The transport industry is being electrified, which means it is more important than ever for EV owners to have access to rapid, reliable charging infrastructure,” said Jane Hunter, Tritium’s Chief Executive Officer. “We are proud to provide this networked infrastructure to our customers. As a public company, we expect to continue to expand our product suite and global footprint.”

Meeting President Biden at the White House

President Joe Biden invited Tritium CEO Jane Hunter to the White House to meet with Secretary of Transportation Pete Buttigieg, Secretary of Energy Jennifer Granholm, former National Climate Advisor Gina McCarthy, and many other politicians. Biden spoke about his administration’s commitment to electrifying transportation and building America’s fast charging infrastructure. Jane Hunter spoke about our new Tennessee manufacturing facility and the future of Tritium in America.

“This is an exciting time for the e-mobility industry,” said Hunter. “We’ve reached a tipping point, and transportation as we know it is experiencing a history-making shift. In the process, it’s providing a bipartisan opportunity to create a new future for the benefit of all Americans. Cleaner air and more jobs — it’s a win-win, for Tritium, which will continue to lead the charge in this industry, and for Americans, who will be far more likely to choose EVs when they can charge them with ease.”

“We’re going to announce a state-by-state allocation for $5 billion in funding for these chargers so states can start making plans to build out what will become a national network of electric vehicle chargers,” said President Biden. “Tritium’s new facility is going to produce up to 30 000 of these chargers every year. They’ll use American parts, American iron, American steel, and they’ll be installed up and down the highways and corridors in our communities all across the country by union workers from the IBEW (International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers).”

Major Partnership Agreements

Tritium signed major partnership agreements with world-leading energy companies and charge point operators.

BP Tritium signed a multi-year contract to deliver nearly 1,000 DC fast chargers to world-leading energy company BP for its BP Pulse charging networks in the United States, United Kingdom, Europe, and Australia.

EasyGoLargest private car charging network in Ireland announced deployment of 200 Tritium DC fast chargers.

Enel X WayUS charge point operator Enel X Way agreed to purchase 250 Tritium DC fast chargers for its nation-wide charging network.

evyve UK charging network evyve plans to install 10,000 charging stations by 2030 and placed an initial order for 350 Tritium DC fast chargers.

OspreyUK charge point operator Osprey purchased over 250 Tritium rapid chargers to expand their UK network across 100 new charging destinations.

Wise EVWise EV is working with Tritium to build a charging network in the United States.

Tennessee Manufacturing Facility

In August, Tritium officially opened our new Tennessee manufacturing facility. Our first US-based EV fast charger manufacturing facility, located in Lebanon, Tennessee, will employ more than 500 people over the next five years and will play a crucial role in building America’s coast-to-coast fast-charging network.

Tritium by the Numbers

As of the date of this publication, Tritium has achieved the following milestones.

Looking to 2023

In 2023 Tritium plans to keep charging ahead in our quest to electrify transportation across the globe. Our Tennessee facility will add additional assembly lines to meet growing demand for DC fast chargers in the United States and the world. We plan to manufacture fast chargers complying with Buy America standards for America’s coast-to-coast EV charging network being built under the National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure (NEVI) program.

Tritium is also hard at work creating charging solutions specifically designed for fleet operations—light, medium, and heavy-duty commercial vehicles and rideshare cars and vans. We know fleet vehicles have different requirements than consumer and commuter vehicles. Some need to be recharged multiple times a day, others only need to be charged at night. The correct charging application for your fleet can drastically reduce capital expenditure and save hundreds of thousands in site construction costs.

Last, Tritium will continue to expand our workforce, providing jobs in manufacturing, engineering, customer success, sales, and marketing. And of course, we will continue to manufacture and deliver DC fast chargers for a wide range of applications, including highway, fleets, utilities, retail and marine. We look forward to helping our customers and the world electrify transportation in 2023.

Electric vehicles (EVs) are often out of reach for people in America’s large cities. Most of those cities lack affordable, convenient public charging sites and charging operators are hesitant to install sites because there aren’t enough EVs. Revel is bringing both to major cities across the U.S. The company’s Superhubs feature convenient public fast chargers and house fleets of EVs for their rideshare service. Superhubs give city dwellers an affordable way to use EVs while allowing Revel to build out much-needed charging infrastructure across major cities. The company opened its first Superhub in the underserved community of Bedford–Stuyvesant in Brooklyn, New York in 2021. The facility features 25 Tritium DC fast chargers for their fleet of Tesla Model Y EVs.

About Revel

Revel’s mission is to accelerate EV adoption in cities by providing the infrastructure and services that make it easy to go electric. Revel currently operates in New York City and San Francisco and employs over 700 people.


Like any fleet, EV rideshare services need reliable, easy-to-use, and fast charging infrastructure to ensure high fleet availability and uptime. Every minute spent charging is a minute that could be spent serving rideshare customers. EV rideshare services also need chargers that can accommodate any brand and type of EV. Revel currently uses Tesla Model Y EVs for their rideshare service, but the company wanted the flexibility to use any brand of EV in the future. It also needed chargers that are compatible with any customer EV. And because they’re charging a fleet and providing a large-scale public fast charging, Revel understood the importance of reliable DC fast chargers.

Lastly, Revel needed compact chargers to make efficient use of the space available at their Superhub      site—the former Pfizer manufacturing facility. The 660,000-square-foot facility was renovated for reuse in 2014 and now supports a thriving commercial business district with shops and restaurants. 


When Revel started planning their first Superhub charging station and fleet depot, they reached out to Tritium for their charging needs. Revel chose a 75kW variant of Tritium’s modular and stand-alone fast charger, the award-winning RTM. The RTM has built-in power rectifiers, making installation faster and easier in tight spaces. It also uses modular power modules for improved reliability, serviceability, and upgradability.

“We needed proven, reliable fast chargers that could be installed in small spaces,” said Revel’s Head of Infrastructure Tobias Lescht. “Tritium’s modular technology allows for easy and fast maintenance. The chargers are compact, which is key for us because we operate in an urban environment. Tritium has been a good partner developing technology in lockstep with our business goals.”

Revel installed 25 RTM chargers at its Bedford-Stuyvesant Superhub. Tritium chargers can easily charge Revel’s Model Y EVs using an adapter and EVs that use CCS or CHAdeMO. The chargers are used to power Revel’s own fleet of rideshare vehicles and are available for other EV drivers who need to charge up. EV drivers only pay for power at the Revel Superhub, not parking, making the facility a popular destination for EV drivers across the city.


Since launching their Superhub in June of 2021, Revel has logged more than 68,000 charging hours and 1.8 million kWh supplied on Tritium chargers. As of January 2023, the Brooklyn Superhub has logged 500k rideshare trips.

“The Tritium RTM chargers are a good for our Brooklyn Superhub”, said Tobias Lescht, Revel’s Head of Infrastructure. We really have put them to the test with our high usage.”


Tritium Charger Used

Tritium’s stand-alone 75kW RTM fast charger is perfect for retail environments or anywhere a compact, all-in-one charger is required.



Switching to EV commercial vehicles and investing in EV charging infrastructure can save money and reduce Scope 1, Scope 2, and even Scope 3 greenhouse gas emissions.

The first step to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is measuring how much greenhouse gases we currently emit. In the US, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP) in 2009 to do just that. Since then, it has surveyed major GHG emitters, including thousands of industrial facilities and suppliers of fossil fuels and other gases. US policymakers, environmental groups, the media, and scientists use the data to analyze and project global warming. Unless your company is a major industrial manufacturer or fossil fuel provider, you won’t have to participate in the GHGRP.

Still, you may be looking for ways to reduce your organization’s carbon footprint. The GHGRP program offers guidance for doing just that. This article explores the GHGRP and the ways you can reduce your organization’s carbon footprint—including transitioning from fossil fuel vehicles to electric vehicles.

Who participates in the GHGRP?

If a facility emits more than 25,000 metric tons of CO2 per year, it must record and report those emissions to the EPA through the GHGRP. About 7,600 facilities currently report to the GHGRP. Combined, they emit 3 billion metric tons of CO2 per year, which is about 50 percent of total US GHG emissions. The EPA tracks another 1,000 fossil fuel suppliers. The EPA estimates that the GHGRP collects data on 85-90 percent of all US GHG emissions. The EPA has a list of industrial operations covered by the GHRP here. The EPA tracks total US GHG emissions in the US Greenhouse Gas Inventory.

What about low-emitting organizations?

According to the EPA, most office-based businesses, small businesses, and public institutions are relatively low GHG emitters. Most of their GHG emissions will come from electricity and vehicle usage. Small manufacturers will also have emissions related to refrigerants and other waste gases. The EPA has three categories for emissions:

Scope 1: Direct emissions from onsite combustion and mobile sources
Scope 2: Indirect emissions from purchased electricity and steam
Scope 3: Optional emissions–examples include product transport, employee business travel, and employed commuting.

Scope 1 Emissions

The EPA offers guidance for identifying and measuring Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions. Again, Scope 1 emissions include emissions from directly burning fossil fuels and other things like wood, yard waste, paper, etc. Scope 1 emissions also include any natural gas that may leak from pipes or tanks. Finally, Scope 1 emissions include emissions from any vehicles owned by the organization.

You can eliminate Scope 1 vehicle emissions by switching to electric vehicles (EVs). EVs emit no CO2 and can be charged with power generated with renewable energy sources like solar, wind, and geothermal. There are many other advantages to transitioning your fleet to electric. Electric vans, trucks, and cars can have a lower total cost of ownership (TCO) than their fossil fuel-powered counterparts. According to a recent study by US electric power utility PG&E, a fleet of 20 medium-duty diesel-powered delivery vans will cost approximately $4.14 million over 10 years of ownership. The TCO for an electric fleet of 20 medium-duty delivery vans over 10 years is just $2.76 million. EV fleets also give organizations the opportunity to control transportation energy/fuel costs more tightly. It’s easier to estimate the cost of electricity than it is to estimate the fluctuating price of oil and diesel fuel.

EVs are much less expensive to own and operate over time thanks to the low cost of electricity and mechanical maintenance when compared to diesel vehicles makes. There are also many tax and other government incentives for commercial EVs and EV charging infrastructure. In the US, there are significant tax breaks and funding available to businesses that want to electrify their fleet. The recently passed US Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) provides nearly $370 billion to help combat climate change. Incentives include:

The National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure (NEVI) formula program also provides $5 billion for DC fast charging sites. These funds are available now and some states have already started rolling out their NEVI programs.

Scope 2 Emissions

Scope 2 emissions are generated by electricity production. If your organization purchases electricity generated by burning coal, Scope 2 emissions will be higher than if it purchases electricity from renewable energy sources. Many organizations don’t have a lot of choice when it comes to purchasing electricity—they usually must use electricity from whichever energy sources are available. But some utility companies offer the option to purchase all or a percentage of your electricity from renewable sources like solar or wind. Contact your local utility to determine if your organization can purchase energy from renewable sources. The EPA also offers advice for how to decrease Scope 2 emissions.

Scope 3 Emissions

Scope 3 emissions come from any activities or assets not owned by your organization but are nonetheless the result of your organization’s activities. They include things like materials or product deliveries, business travel, and even employee commuting. Scope 3 emissions are also called value chain emissions and they often account for the majority of an organization’s GHG emissions.

The EPA has split Scope 3 emissions into 15 categories:

The EPA has more information about these categories and how to account for them here.

There are many ways that EVs can reduce Scope 3 emissions. Installing DC fast chargers at your office or facility can encourage employees to make the switch to electric, further reducing Scope 3 emissions. Organizations can also work with partners and suppliers to offer incentives to electrify delivery and other commercial vehicles. For example, a company may not own and operate the delivery vehicles for its product, but it can install DC fast chargers at distribution centers to encourage transport partners to electrify their fleets. Again, electricity prices can be more stable than diesel fuel prices, which lets organizations and their transportation partners plan more effectively.

To learn more about how EV commercial vehicles and DC fast charging infrastructure can save your organization money and cut GHG emissions, contact one of our experts today.


Not all EV chargers are equal. Like EVs, they come in many different configurations and offer different features. Whether you’re shopping for a personal electric vehicle or you’re thinking about electrifying your fleet, sorting it all out can be a chore. Here we’ll briefly explain the different types of chargers, how they work, and what it all means for people who use their EVs for at home or for business.


To make sense of EV chargers, the EV industry created three “levels” of charging that roughly correlate to charging power and speed—level 1 being the lowest power/slowest speed. This gives us a straightforward way to categorize and organize EV chargers.

Level 1 Charging

Level 1 charging is the slowest and most accessible form of charging. It uses the standard home wall outlet (120v in US, 220v in EU) and your EV’s onboard charging hardware to charge your EV’s batteries. Level 1 charging usually delivers around 3-5 miles (5-8 km) of range per hour of charging. Not great, but if you leave your EV plugged in overnight you’ll probably have enough power to get to work in the morning. On the other hand, if you’re going on a road trip, it could take more than 30 hours to get 105 miles (169 km) of range. Level 1 charging is slow, but it’s cheap—the equipment comes with your EV and all you really need is an extension cord. If you have a short commute or work from home, you may not need more than level 1 charging.

But if you have a longer commute, or if you can’t wait a few days to fully charge your EV, you’ll need something faster. And if you’re running a fleet, level 1 charging won’t delivery anywhere near the power you need.

Level 2 Charging

Level 2 is the fastest way to charge your vehicle at home. It uses the 240v power lines in your home that are dedicated to high-power appliances like clothes dryers, electric ovens, or central air conditioners. These higher-voltage lines provide more current (amperage) than a standard wall outlet, which means you can charge your EV faster. A level 2 charger can fully charge most passenger EVs in 8-10 hours, which is about three times as fast as a level 1 charger.

Depending on your home, you may need to have an electrician install a second 240-volt power outlet with its own circuit breaker to use a level 2 charger. Some chargers need to be hard wired into your home’s electrical system by a certified electrician and may also require a separate circuit breaker. Many can be used without a dedicated circuit breaker at lower charging levels. It’s also possible to use your existing clothes dryer outlet, swapping out the dryer’s plug for your charger’s when you need to. But before you use any level 2 charger, it’s a good idea to have an electrician inspect your home’s electrical system to make sure it can handle the power draw. High-power chargers and appliances can overload your home’s wiring, causing blown circuit breakers or even fires.

Level 2 charging may work great at home, but it won’t deliver enough power for businesses or fleets. They require more power to charge batteries much faster.

Level 3 Charging

Level 3 charging doesn’t really exist as a category—it’s just a convenient way to categorize everything faster than level 2 charging. When a company or publication mentions level 3 charging, they mean DC fast charging.

DC Fast Charging

Direct current (DC) fast charging is the fastest way to charge up your EV. Lithium-ion batteries store and release DC power, and there’s no way to charge them without first transforming the alternating current (AC) power in the electrical grid to DC power. Level 2 home chargers can only handle so much power. Commercial DC fast chargers connect directly to high-voltage AC power lines and have dedicated infrastructure for transforming it into DC power. Because of this, they can deliver much more power than level 2 home chargers. DC fast chargers can typically charge an EV from 20 to 80 percent in as little as 15 minutes. They are perfect for highways, retail environments, delivery vehicles, and even electrical industrial equipment.

DC fast chargers like our PKM150 are a quick and convenient way for EV drivers to charge up while they’re shopping, taking a road trip, or even grabbing a bite to eat. They will also be essential to “last-mile” delivery EVs that deliver goods from local warehouses to homes and businesses. Walmart and Amazon have both purchased electric delivery vehicles for last-mile delivery and they plan to purchase more in the coming years.

For a deeper dive into how DC fast chargers work, read our article here.

Expect to see more DC fast chargers at shopping centers, restaurants, rest stops, gas stations, and even convenience stores. Unlike gas stations, they can be purchased and installed by any business who has the space to install them. Modular chargers like our PKM and RTM series can be purchased and installed in “base” configurations and then upgraded over time to meet increased demand. According to a recent BNEF report, the world will need approximately 290 million more electric vehicle (EV) charging points by 2040 to keep up with the growing global EV fleet. The U.S EV market alone is projected to grow from $28.24 billion in 2021 to $137.43 billion in 2028.

If you’re interested in installing a DC fast charger for your business, contact a member of our sales team today:


Filling up your car with gas is straightforward: Liquid gasoline flows out of the pump and into the tank. The flow rate is linear, meaning the amount of gas flowing out of the pump stays the same over time. You’d be surprised if the pump blasted 10 gallons of gas into the tank in the first few minutes, then took 30 minutes to fill up the rest. However, electric vehicle (EV) charging is non-linear, meaning the rate of energy flow from the charger to your car’s battery is not constant.

Lithium-ion batteries are far more complex and delicate than a simple gas tank. Charge them too quickly and they can get too hot or even be damaged. Overcharge them and they’ll be damaged. Let them sit without charging or discharging and they’ll lose capacity. To prolong battery life, EV manufacturers develop charging routines, or “curves,” to manage the charging process in the most optimal way and retain capacity over time. Now let’s learn why lithium-based batteries need charging curves and how EV makers and charger makers work together to deliver them.

How does a lithium-ion battery work?

Very simply put, lithium-ion batteries store and release energy via a chemical reaction. During this reaction, lithium ions move from one electrode to the other through an electrolyte, either shedding or gaining electrons along the way. Run a current of electricity through the battery and it “charges.” Connect the terminals to a circuit and they discharge.

Inside a lithium-ion battery.

What are EV charging curves?

Charging and discharging lithium-ion batteries generates heat, and excessive heat can reduce long term battery life. Fast charging lithium-ion batteries is a delicate balance between speed and heat. Charge them too quickly and they’ll overheat. To keep batteries cool while charging them quickly, auto manufactures vary the amount of charge over time. Typically, fast charging has two phases, a constant current phase and a constant voltage or “topping charge” phase. During the constant current phase, the battery charges as fast as it can without overheating. You may have noticed that many EV manufacturers say their cars can fast charge from 20 to 80 percent in a short amount of time. That’s the constant current phase, which is the fastest in the charging cycle. After the constant current phase, the charger moves into the constant voltage phase, which is slower. Charging the EV battery from 80 to 90 percent may take as long as charging it from 40 to 80 percent. As the battery nears full charge, it’s critical to make sure it doesn’t overheat, thus charging is slower.

Charging curves for some popular EVs.

How do chargers talk to EVs?

Every EV has its own unique charging curve. When you plug your EV into a DC fast charger, it tells the charger how it needs to be charged. Your car constantly communicates with the charger, relaying information about the battery’s current state of charge. This communication is key to maintaining battery temperature during charging, and the overall health and longevity of your car’s lithium-ion battery. Tritium chargers use multiple communication standards to communicate with cars, including DIN SPEC 70121, ISO 15118, and CHAdeMO. Different cars use different standards, but manufacturers are working to create a more universal experience through a standard called Plug & Charge.

With Plug & Charge, there’s no need to enter payment information. Payment and/or charging network membership info is stored onboard in the car and is transmitted securely to the charger instantly. The system uses cryptographic tools to secure communications between the vehicle and the charging station, protecting the driver’s personal information, the vehicle’s systems that are “touched” during the charging process, and the charger itself from malicious attacks during the charging process. Plug & Charge will make charging up your EV much faster, easier, and more convenient.

How do EV chargers convert grid power (AC) to battery power (DC)?

The power grid runs on alternating current (AC), but EVs use direct current (DC). Direct current does what it says: Flows in one direction directly. Alternating current flows in alternating directions, flip-flopping from one to the other, 50 or 60 times per second. AC is great for transmitting power over long distances, but it can’t be stored in a battery. To charge a battery, AC power needs to be changed into DC power. DC fast charger systems use something called a rectifier to transform AC power into DC power for charging. Rectifiers essentially redirect alternating current into a single-direction of flow—direct current. That DC current flows into the DC charger, which ensures the EV receives the right amount of power when it needs it.

The PKM150 DC microgrid.

If you’re considering an EV, you might want a home charger. To learn more about different charger types, check out our article on different levels of charging.

If you’re a business owner who’s interested in installing a DC fast charger, contact one of our experts today: